Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (SFTP)
Causes and risk factors
In solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura, unlike mesotheliomas, no correlation with exposure to asbestos or other carcinogens has been identified, and their cause is still unknown.
They are very rare neoplasms, with an incidence of 2.8 out of 100,000 cancers and affect at any age (cases from 5 to 87 years are reported) with a peak between the sixth and seventh decade of life, with no sex preference.
Which are the symptoms?
About 50% of patients with SFT are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis, and the malignancy is occasionally found on a chest X-ray, which often shows a small, homogeneous mass, usually located in contact with the chest wall or adjacent to the lung. When present, the symptoms can be: cough, dyspnoea, chest pain, bleeding in the airway, hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy, digital hippocratism.
How is it diagnosed?
The reference examination for the diagnosis is represented by the CT of the chest, which usually highlights well-defined and homogeneous masses; however, the use of Magnetic Resonance is limited.
How is it treated?
Radical surgical treatment is a method of treating SFT, associated with the possible removal of the lung parenchyma adjacent to the lesion. In most cases, surgery is the definitive treatment for this type of neoplasm, and only in rare cases can SFT recur. The effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been little documented. Recurrence of the disease most often occurs within the first 24 months after surgery, both locally at the previous site of the tumor, and remotely. Given the poorly documented evidence of currently available cancer treatments, surgical resection remains the treatment of choice in the event of recurrence.