What is it?

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mass and qualitative changes (macro and microarchitecture, material properties) that are accompanied by increased risk of fracture. Osteoporosis is defined as early forms of osteoporosis that appear after menopause (postmenopausal).

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is defined as osteoporosis that appears after menopause or with advancing age (senile). Secondary Osteoporosis are those caused by a large number of diseases and drugs.

Which are the symptoms?

Osteoporosis is an essentially asymptomatic disease until the occurrence of its complication, we are talking about fragility fractures in the absence of trauma or after moderate trauma. Femur and/or wrist fractures are acutely accompanied by intense pain and functional impotence, while vertebral fractures can be frequently paucisymptomatic (spine pain) or completely asymptomatic.

  • Fragility fractures
  • Vertebral fractures
  • Wrist fractures
  • Femur fractures
  • Bone pain

How is it diagnosed?

Computerized Bone Mineralometry (CBM) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) technique allows accurate measurement of bone mass and in particular bone mineral density (BMD). In order to provide a more correct diagnostic framework, it is essential to perform vertebral morphometry on conventional radiograms or with DEXA method. For the differential diagnosis it is useful to perform level I and II examinations.

How is it treated?

The treatment of osteoporosis is based on the correction of modifiable risk factors, including smoking, alcohol abuse, sedentary lifestyle and low dietary calcium intake. In addition, in secondary forms, treatment of the underlying pathology is essential. The therapeutic approach involves supplementation with calcium salts and vitamin D (cholecalciferol or, less frequently, calcifediol). In addition, evaluated the fracture risk, it is possible to prescribe anabolic (teriparatide) or antiresorptive therapies (bisphosphonates or denosumab).

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