What is it?
Most malignant tumors, as they develop, infiltrate surrounding tissues and spread throughout the body, giving rise to other distinct neoplastic lesions at a distance from the primary tumor. This process is called metastasis, and secondary neoplastic lesions are called metastases (or secondary lesions, or recurrent lesions).
The following tumors most commonly metastasize to the lungs:
- colorectal cancer;
- kidney cancer;
- breast cancer;
- head and neck cancer;
In addition, lung tumors can metastasize to different parts of the same lung or to the contralateral lung.
In all of these cases, the spread of the primary tumor to the lung is through blood vessels (hematogenous route).
Which are the symptoms?
In most cases, lung metastases are diagnosed episodically during follow-up after treatment of the primary tumor. Rarely, lung metastases cause symptoms: in this case, the most common complaints are coughing, weight loss, and hemophobia (coughing up blood).
How is it diagnosed?
Computed tomography of the chest can accurately determine the location and number of metastases in the lungs.
How is it treated?
Lung metastases can be treated surgically. However, the primary tumor must be controlled, the time between treatment of the primary tumor and diagnosis of metastasis must be long enough, and the patient must be in good general condition. If these three conditions are met in the same patient, surgery in combination with various types of chemotherapy can give very good results. For patients who cannot be operated on, there is a wide range of nonsurgical treatments such as chemotherapy, conventional radiotherapy, tomotherapy and thermoablation.
Where do we treat it?
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