Hematuria in children

What is it?

It is the presence of blood in the urine. Hematuria is not a pathology, but a symptom of another pathology. It is subdivided into

·         macroscopic: blood in the urine is visible to the child or parents;

·         microscopic: the urine is clear, blood is not visible to the naked eye, and only a laboratory test can determine its presence.

Causes and risk factors

Macroscopic hematuria is an infrequent condition in children (reported in 1 in 1000), while microscopic hematuria affects 1-2 children in 100.

Hematuria can be caused by

·      renal disease: mainly glomerulonephritis, i.e. acute or chronic inflammation of the renal parenchyma responsible for urine production;

·      diseases of the urinary tract, such as stones, infections, trauma or malformation.

Which are the symptoms?

When hematuria is present, an examination by a pediatric urologist can identify the problem by evaluating the following

·           characteristics of the hematuria, such as size, color, consistency during all or part of the urination;

·           presence of any concomitant problems, such as trauma, pain, urinary dysfunction, fever or pharyngeal infections.

How is it diagnosed?

The tests performed vary from case to case. Typically, they include:

·         urinalysis with urine culture to check for signs of kidney disease or urinary tract infections;

·         ultrasound of the urinary tract to assess for damage due to trauma, stones, or congenital malformations of the urinary tract.

Suggested exams

How is it treated?

Treatment of hematuria depends on the pathology causing the disorder.

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