Haemorrhoidal pathology

What is it?

Haemorrhoids are a normal part of our anatomy (our body). They are divided into internal haemorrhoids, which line the last part of the rectum, and marginal haemorrhoids, which are located at the anal margin, i.e. at the beginning of the anal canal. The haemorrhoidal tissue plays an important role in maintaining anorectal continuity by acting as a 'shock absorber' and protecting the anorectal canal during the passage of faecal material.

Which are the symptoms?

Haemorrhoidal disorders are characterized by prolapse (leakage of haemorrhoidal tissue outside the anus). The main symptom of haemorrhoidal disease is not pain.

  • bleeding
  • Prolapse
  • Wet anus
  • Difficulties in defecation
  • Pain (thrombosis of haemorrhoid nodes)
  • Contamination (difficulty with hygiene)

How is it diagnosed?

Diagnosing haemorrhoidal disease requires an accurate history and a specialised proctological examination.  A perineal examination, a rectal examination and finally anoscopy will be performed during the examination. A colonoscopy may be requested to complete the patient's examination, but it is not a useful examination for diagnosing haemorrhoidal node pathology.

Suggested exams

How is it treated?

Treatment of haemorrhoidal pathology can be medical or surgical. The therapy will be chosen according to the disease pattern, disorders, the patient's characteristics and any comorbidities. The proctologist will be able to suggest the best treatment for the patient. Medication therapy is described on another sheet, and here is a list of surgical possibilities.

Suggested procedures

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