What is it?

This is a set of clinical manifestations characterized by the presence of antibodies in the bloodstream, which are reversibly deposited at low temperatures. Plasma proteins that flocculate in the cold are called cryoglobulins, and the protein deposit is called cryoprecipitate.

Cryoglobulins can be divided into three types depending on the characteristics of the immunoglobulins forming the cryoprecipitate:

  • type 1: associated with hematological diseases such as lymphomas or Waldenstrom’s disease;
  • type 2: often associated with chronic hepatitis C virus infection or with autoimmune diseases;
  • type 3: associated with autoimmune, inflammatory, infectious diseases.



Which are the symptoms?

Deposits in small blood vessels cause an inflammatory reaction, which often manifests itself in the appearance of small painful red spots on the lower extremities (palpable purpura).

Other symptoms occur in the kidneys (glomerulonephritis) or in the peripheral nervous system (polyneuropathy).

How is it diagnosed?

Suggested exams

How is it treated?

The treatment of secondary forms is based on the treatment of the primary disease (for instance, interferon in forms associated with viral hepatitis C).

In some cases, steroid or immunosuppressive therapy is required.

Sometimes it may be necessary to quickly reduce the concentration of cryoglobulins in the blood using plasmapheresis.

Where do we treat it?

Within the San Donato Group, you can find Cryoglobulinemia specialists at these departments:

Are you interested in receiving the treatment?

Contact us and we will take care of you.