Allergic rhinitis (AR) and rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC)
Which are the symptoms?
An allergic cold is characterized by itching and nasal congestion, profuse watery discharge (rhinorrhea), and sneezing attacks.
How is it diagnosed?
Diagnosis is possible by performing skin tests (PRICK) and serological tests (specific IgE tests) to identify the allergen responsible.
How is it treated?
The therapeutic strategies are mainly as follows:
1) prescribing synthetic drugs, mainly antihistamines and topical corticosteroids (nasal sprays) or systemically (by mouth), depending on the severity of symptoms. These drugs have almost immediate effects, but have some side effects (for example, antihistamines can cause drowsiness; nasal corticosteroids can cause epistaxis, and mucosal wasting). In addition, they cannot change the natural course of an allergic disease, which over time tends to worsen and accompany bronchial asthma.
2) the appointment of specific immunotherapy with allergenic extracts (ITS or desensitizing therapy): this is the only therapy that can affect the source of the allergic disease, gradually modulating the response of the immune system, which in allergic subjects reacts incorrectly to substances (allergens) such as pollen, dust mites, mold, animal epithelium, which are usually found in the environment and harmless to healthy people. Numerous clinical studies have shown that specific immunotherapy reduces drug intake and asthma risk, significantly improving patients' quality of life.