Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs)
Which are the symptoms?
Patients with congenital vascular malformations may have diffuse angiomas of the skin and mucous membranes (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome), hemoptysis, shortness of breath on exertion, heart failure, brain abscesses, or stroke.
How is it diagnosed?
The most effective methods are CT and MRI of the chest. A simple chest x-ray cannot distinguish a malformation from a solid mass.
How is it treated?
Treatment consists of percutaneous vascular occlusion (embolization) in cases of localized disease and minor malformations. In all other cases, surgical resection of the affected area of the lung parenchyma is indicated.