Paediatric Department

Ospedale San Raffaele

key figures 


  • Paediatric and adolescent diabetes
  • Congenital hypothyroidism
  • Growth Disorders
  • Pubertal and sex development Disorders
  • Thyroid Disorders
  • Bone Metabolism Disorders
  • Glucose Metabolism Disorders
  • Rare diseases:
    • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
    • Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes
    • Idiopathic precocious puberty
    • Hermaphroditism
    • Hyperinsulinism
    • Bardet-Biedl syndrome
    • Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
    • Kallmann syndrome
    • Klinefelter syndrome
    • Noonan syndrome
    • Prader-Willi syndrome
    • Silver-Russel syndrome
    • Turner syndrome
    • Wolfram syndrome

Yearly Procedures:

  • General statistics
    • 12000 outpatient visits
    • 1200 day-hospital admissions
    • 1600 hospitalisations
  • Endocrine and Rare Diseases
    • Growth disorders: 1000 outpatients visits
    • Pubertal and sex development disorders: 1250 outpatients visits
    • Thyroid disorders: 1800 outpatient visits
    • Bone metabolism disorders:  150 outpatients’ visits
  • Diabetology
    • 2500 outpatient visits
  • Allergology
    • 400-500 outpatient visits
  • Gastroenterology
    • 600-800 outpatient visits including: hydrogen breath test, impedance pH monitoring for gastroesophageal reflux measurement

San Raffaele Hospital’s Paediatric Department deals with the diagnosis and treatment of paediatric and adolescent disorders. This department focuses especially on endocrinology, diabetology, allergology, gastroenterology and immunohematology. It is a regional centre of reference for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus in paediatric and adolescent age, of congenital hypothyroidism and congenital adrenal hyperplasia as well as for rare diseases.


Alongside clinical activities, the team collaborates in basic science and clinical research in multiple areas, as documented by our yearly publications in national and international scientific journals.



Endocrine and Rare Diseases

The Unit is highly specialized in the diagnosis and follow up of endocrine disorders. It performs hormonal stimulation tests for every kind of endocrine disorder. In addition to hormonal tests, a team of highly qualified consultants are able to perform ultrasound/X-ray/MRI scans, and total body and vertebral bone densitometry in order to assess all aspects of specific endocrine diseases.  A previous outpatient evaluation is needed to be admitted in the Day Hospital for further diagnostic evaluation.

Main Pathologies Treated:

  • Growth disorders
    • short and tall stature
    • hypothalamic-pituitary disfunction
    • small for gestational age infants
  • Pubertal and sex development disorders
  • Thyroid disorders
    • congenital and acquired hypothyroidism
    • hyperthyroidism
    • thyroid nodules
  • Bone metabolism disorders
    • bone dysplasia
    • hypoparathyroidism
    • rickets, osteopenia
  • Glucose metabolism disorders
    • hypoglicemia/hyperglicemia
  • Obesity


The Paediatric department is the regional centre of reference for the diagnosis and care of paediatric and adolescent diabetes.  A multidisciplinary team including diabetologists, nurses, dieticians and psychologists cooperate to provide the patient and the patient’s family with the best and most up-to-date knowledge in order to guarantee optimal self-management after hospital discharge. The most modern technology (insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitoring, telemedicine) is offered to all our patients.  

Main Pathology Treated:

  • Diabetes in paediatric and adolescent patients

Top Procedures:

  • Insulin Pumps
  • Glucose Monitoring
  • Telemedicine

General Paediatrics, Allergology, Gastroenterology

The Unit’s outpatient service is also active in the field of allergology and gastroenterology. The inpatient clinic is comprised of 30 beds, dedicated to the diagnosis and care of acute and chronic paediatric and adolescent disorders including general and endocrine diseases.

In addition to urgent admissions from San Raffaele Paediatric Emergency Department, we perform hospitalizations after family paediatricians’ request, or after our paediatric outpatient service’s request. Every hospitalized child is offered a bed for one parent. Recreational activities are held with the daily presence of childhood educators and volunteers.

The Paediatric Department uses multidisciplinary approach and collaborates with specialists from other departments of the San Raffaele Hospital in order to guarantee the best possible clinical pathway. The collaboration includes paediatric experts from the following areas:

  • Cardiology and arrhythmology
  • Nutrition
  • Medical genetics
  • Immunology and haematology
  • Infectious diseases
  • Neurosurgery
  • Neurology
  • Ophthalmology
  • Orthopaedics*
  • Otorhinolaryngology (ENT)
  • Radiology and neuroradiology
  • Psychology and psychotherapy
  • Urology*

The Unit also collaborates with the Department of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery of Policlinico San Donato. Patients undergoing urological and/or orthopaedic surgery are followed in close cooperation with the Paediatric Department: they are admitted in the department before and after the procedure.



  • MRI under sedation for patients younger than 6 years of age or for patients with psychomotor/cognitive delay
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy under sedation